##
# Encodes and decodes locations from Morton-coded "quad tile" strings. Each
# variable-length string encodes to a precision of one pixel per tile (roughly,
# since this computation is done in lat/lon coordinates, not mercator).
# Each character encodes 3 bits of x and 3 of y, so there are extra characters
# tacked on the end to make the zoom levels "work".
module ShortLink
# array of 64 chars to encode 6 bits. this is almost like base64 encoding, but
# the symbolic chars are different, as base64's + and / aren't very
# URL-friendly.
ARRAY = ("A".."Z").to_a + ("a".."z").to_a + ("0".."9").to_a + ["_", "~"]
##
# Given a string encoding a location, returns the [lon, lat, z] tuple of that
# location.
def self.decode(str)
x = 0
y = 0
z = 0
z_offset = 0
# keep support for old shortlinks which use the @ character, now
# replaced by the ~ character because twitter is horribly broken
# and we can't have that.
str.tr!("@", "~")
str.each_char do |c|
t = ARRAY.index c
if t.nil?
z_offset -= 1
else
3.times do
x <<= 1
x |= 1 unless (t & 32).zero?
t <<= 1
y <<= 1
y |= 1 unless (t & 32).zero?
t <<= 1
end
z += 3
end
end
# pack the coordinates out to their original 32 bits.
x <<= (32 - z)
y <<= (32 - z)
# project the parameters back to their coordinate ranges.
[(x * 360.0 / 2**32) - 180.0,
(y * 180.0 / 2**32) - 90.0,
z - 8 - (z_offset % 3)]
end
##
# given a location and zoom, return a short string representing it.
def self.encode(lon, lat, z)
code = interleave_bits(((lon + 180.0) * 2**32 / 360.0).to_i,
((lat + 90.0) * 2**32 / 180.0).to_i)
str = ""
# add eight to the zoom level, which approximates an accuracy of
# one pixel in a tile.
((z + 8) / 3.0).ceil.times do |i|
digit = (code >> (58 - 6 * i)) & 0x3f
str << ARRAY[digit]
end
# append characters onto the end of the string to represent
# partial zoom levels (characters themselves have a granularity
# of 3 zoom levels).
((z + 8) % 3).times { str << "-" }
str
end
private
##
# interleaves the bits of two 32-bit numbers. the result is known
# as a Morton code.
def self.interleave_bits(x, y)
c = 0
31.downto(0) do |i|
c = (c << 1) | ((x >> i) & 1)
c = (c << 1) | ((y >> i) & 1)
end
c
end
end